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It may be useless or even wrong to institute invidious comparisons between different callings which are all useful and necessary, and the matter is not introduced here with any view of exalting the engineering profession; it is for some reasons regretted that the subject is alluded to at all, but there is too much to be gained by an apprentice having a pride and love for his calling to pass over the matter of its dignity as a pursuit without calling attention to it. The gauntlet has been thrown down and comparison provoked by the unfair and unreasonable place that the politician, the metaphysician, and the moral philosopher have in the past assigned to the sciences and constructive arts. Poetry, metaphysics, mythology, war, and superstition have in their time engrossed the literature of the world, and formed the subject of what was alone considered education.前面下二尊碎5. Every part laid down has something to govern it that may be termed a "base"—some condition of function or position which, if understood, will suggest size, shape, and relation to other parts. By searching after a base for each and every part and detail, the draughtsman proceeds upon a regular system, continually maintaining a test of what is done. Every wheel, shaft, screw or piece of framing should be made with a clear view of the functions it has to fill, and there are, as before said, always reasons why such parts should be of a certain size, have such a speed of movement, or a certain amount of bearing surface, and so on. These reasons or conditions may be classed as expedient, important, or essential, and must be estimated accordingly. As claimed at the beginning, the designs of machines can only in a limited degree be determined by mathematical data. Leaving out all considerations of machine operation with which books have scarcely attempted to deal, we have only to refer to the element of strains to verify the general truth of the proposition.人也A finisher's engine lathe consists essentially of a strong inflexible shear or frame, a running spindle with from eight to sixteen changes of motion, a sliding head, or tail stock, and a sliding carriage to hold and move the tools.扎根

    The force of gravity acts only in one direction—vertically, so that the main force of hoisting and handling machinery which opposes gravity must also act vertically, while the horizontal movement of objects may be accomplished by simply overcoming the friction between them and the surfaces on which they move. This is seen in practice. A force of a hundred pounds may move a loaded truck, which it would require tons to lift; hence the horizontal movements of material may be easily accomplished by hand with the aid of trucks and rollers, so long as it is moved on level planes; but if a weight has to be raised even a single inch by reason of irregularity in floors, the difference between overcoming frictional contact and opposing gravity is at once apparent.想因Designing is in many respects the same thing as invention, except that it deals more with mechanism than principles, although it may, and often does include both. Like invention, designing should always be attempted for the attainment of some definite object laid down at the beginning, and followed persistently throughout.给煮半点Milling tools large enough to admit of detachable cutters being employed, are not so expensive to maintain as solid tools. Edge movement can sometimes be multiplied in this way, so as to greatly exceed what a single tool will perform.具备

  缝一 In conclusion, I will say on the subject of patterns and castings, that a learner must depend mainly upon what he can see and what is explained to him in the pattern-shop and foundry. He need never fear an uncivil answer to a proper question, applied at the right time and place. Mechanics who have enough knowledge to give useful information of their business, have invariably the courtesy and good sense to impart such information to those who require it.飞行

    负的Standard gauging implements were introduced about the year 1840, by the celebrated Swiss engineer, John G. Bodmer, a [148]man who for many reasons deserves to be considered as the founder of machine tool manufacture. He not only employed gauges in his works to secure duplicate dimensions, but also invented and put in use many other reforms in manipulation; among these may be mentioned the decimal or metrical division of measures, a system of detail drawings classified by symbols, the mode of calculating wheels by diametric pitch, with many other things which characterise the best modern practice.凶险I am not aware that the derivation of our standard measures has been, in an historical way, as the foregoing remarks will indicate, nor is it the purpose here to follow such history. A reader, whose attention is directed to the subject, will find no trouble in tracing the matter from other sources. The present object is to show what a wonderful series of connections can be traced from so simple a tool as a measuring gauge, and how abstruse, in fact, are many apparently simple things, often regarded as not worth a thought beyond their practical application.引起

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   Keeping in view what has been said about an elastic connection for transmitting motion and power to hammers, and cushioning the vibratory or reciprocating parts, it will be seen that steam as a driving medium for hammers fills the following conditions:—文阅1分六合彩怎么购彩 开口One of the earliest cares of an apprentice should be to divest his mind of what I will call the romance of mechanical engineering, almost inseparable from such views as are often acquired in technological schools. He must remember that it is not a science he is studying, and that mathematics deal only with one branch of what is to be learned. Special knowledge, or what does not come within the scope of general principles, must be gained in a most practical way, at the expense of hard work, bruised fingers, and a disregard of much that the world calls gentility.但作


  

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